Hedge Fund Articles


Category Archives: Hedge Fund Articles

Hedge Fund Articles is a listing of articles for hedge funds.

Hedge Fund Performance & Management Fees

Hedge funds typically earn income through a variety of fee structures charged to their clients. These fees are not only meant to cover fund administrative and operating costs, but also to reward employees and managers for providing positive returns to investors. The most common and well-known hedge fund fee structure combines both management and performance-based fees. First, the “management” fee [...]

Hedge Fund Insurance: A Good Investment?

Hedge Fund managers spend endless amounts of time and money analyzing and determining the appropriate investments to hedge risk in their portfolios. Can any manager afford to disregard the risks in their business? Originally set-up by Alfred Jones in 1949 to eliminate risk by holding long positions and short-selling other stocks, the Hedge Fund industry has mushroomed in size to [...]

Think. Outsource. Trade. Investment Outsourcing for the Hedge Fund World

By Seth Berlin Thanks to globalization for adding another acronym to my already information-overloaded brain. This one is called “IRO” or Investment Research Outsourcing. Over the next five years it is an acronym you will hear again and again. IRO, loosely defined, is the offshoring of front-office work to a 3rd party provider.  In this article, I will look at [...]

Hedge Fund Jobs – Portfolio Manager

There are many positions within a hedge fund that contribute to its overall success or the lack there-of. But while every player may be integral, hedge funds are a lot like a football team. The failure or success ultimately will be placed on the coach…or in this case, the Portfolio Manager. The Portfolio Manager, or hedge fund manager as they [...]

Hedge Fund Jobs – Quant

Quantitative analysts, or “quants” as they are referred to in the industry, are the brains behind complex hedge funds and the smooth talking managers who run them. Their main responsibility is to create complex trading strategies to work in securities markets around the globe. Since hedge funds may invest in anything and everything through an array of unique and unconventional [...]

Hedge Fund Jobs – Analyst

Due to the usually large amount of assets that hedge funds manage, they are under intense pressure from investors to produce enviable returns. After all, the investor is paying hefty fees for the shrewdness and brilliance of the hedge fund manager. The investor is entrusting the manager with a substantial amount of capital and counting on him to produce results [...]

Hedge Fund Jobs – Compliance Officer

In 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission outlined a series of compliance requirements to be fulfilled by hedge fund advisors. A compliance department ensures that the employees are abiding by these rules set in place by the SEC, with the Chief Compliance Officer heading the task. Hedge funds have a few options. They may outsource this task to compliance professionals [...]

Starting a Forex Hedge Fund

Market conditions have never been better for setting up a forex fund. The number of forex funds and corresponding investors has grown as a result of expanding customer markets. Therefore, traders interested in starting a forex fund (or managing customer accounts) should familiarize themselves with the legal landscape as they consider earning a living in this profitable retail industry. An [...]

Starting an Offshore Fund

By Hannah M. Terhune, Esquire 2008©, hterhune@capitalmanagementservicesgroup.com Capital Management Services Group Many countries are competing against each other to provide the best playing field from a legal standpoint for private investment (hedge) funds. For a new, low budget offshore fund, Anguilla or the British Virgin Islands and not the Cayman Islands may well be the best choice. While many countries [...]

Hedge Fund Due Diligence

Hedge funds are limited to a specific group of sophisticated investors mainly because they are thought to have more experience with markets and investing. However, hedge funds aren’t without risk. While you can’t control market conditions, you can control who you choose to handle your money. Weeding out the bad apples can be one of the most important aspects in [...]

Largest Hedge Funds

While hedge funds are estimated to manage almost $3 trillion in assets, the top hedge funds are responsible for a large chunk of that number. In fact, the largest hedge funds manage about $1.6 trillion, more than half of total assets under management. Despite hedge funds losing a combined $24 billion in 2007, total assets grew over 30% from the [...]

The Subprime Mortgage Crisis – What Happened

In 2007, it was impossible to turn on the news without hearing about one of two things. Britney Spears, or the subprime mortgage crisis. While both debacles got an equal share of press and public scrutiny, the subprime mortgage crisis is still reeking havoc on the economy, and so far, has cost banks upwards of $285 billion. It was the [...]

Forex hedge funds

Over $3 trillion dollars is traded every day on the foreign exchange market. This market, also called Forex, exists whenever one currency is traded for another. Big players in this market include large banks, governments, central banks, corporations, currency speculators, and hedge funds. Top 10 Currencies Traded U.S dollar Euro Japanese yen British pound sterling Swiss franc Australian dollar Canadian [...]

Hedge Fund Risk

The term “hedge fund” was originally coined due the fact that managers would try to hedge the funds against risk in the market by taking both long and short positions. However, risk is almost impossible to avoid in today’s volatile economy, though hedge fund managers do try to use various risk control tactics. There are so many different strategies employed [...]

Hedge Fund Risk Management

When trying to maximize absolute returns, the importance of assessing and mitigating risk shouldn’t be underestimated. Some memorable examples like LTCM and Tiger Fund not only show how heavy losses can be for some participants of the hedge fund industry, but also reinforce the perception that a good record of high absolute returns can mean absolutely nothing in an environment [...]

Bear Stearns – The domino effect that began with the hedge fund collapse

When most people think of Bear Stearns, they think of its recent collapse and the resulting purchase by JPMorgan Chase. However, the demise of Bear Stearns can really be traced back to two failed hedge funds during the summer of 2007 which created a domino effect on the entirety of the company. Let’s take a look back. Few hedge fund [...]

Venture Capital Funds

According to Wikipedia, a venture capital fund is a pooled investment vehicle (often in the form of a limited partnership) that primarily invests the financial capital of third-party investors in enterprises that are too risky for the standard capital markets or bank loans. Venture capital can also include managerial and technical expertise. Most venture capital comes from a group of [...]

Hedge Fund Managers Among World’s Richest

The coveted list is here! Forbes magazine has named the World’s Richest, with 1,125 billionaires making the list… the most ever. Warren Buffet took the title of World’s Richest Man, with a fortune of $62 billion. Bill Gates was dethroned for the first time in 13 years, with assets equaling $58 billion.Not surprisingly, hedge fund gurus are intertwined throughout the [...]

Navigating the Regulation of Hedge Fund Marketing

By JAMES R. HEDGES, IV, PARTNER, AND CHARLOTTE LUER, PARTNER, LJH FINANCIAL MARKETING STRATEGIES, AND LUCINDA O. MCCONATHY, PARTNER, AND PATRICIA C. O’PREY, PARTNER, RICHARDS KIBBE & ORBE LLP Marketing a hedge fund involves a myriad of considerations, including compliance not only with the regulatory requirements and restrictions of the jurisdiction in which the hedge fund is domiciled, but also [...]

The History of Hedge Funds

In 1949, Alfred Winslow Jones devised and implemented an investment strategy that would forever brand him as “the father of the hedge fund industry.” While working for Fortune Magazine and investigating financial strategies, Jones decided to launch his own fund and raised a total of $100,000, $40,000 of which was his own money. Jones employed two strategies still used heavily [...]

List of Hedge Funds

There are estimated to be over 10,000 hedge funds in existence today. Because they are not regulated like mutual funds and other investments, information on these funds may be a lot harder to find. Another reason for the scarcity of hedge fund information lies in the fact that only accredited investors, qualified clients, or institutions may invest in a hedge [...]

How Do Hedge Funds Work?

While there is no specific formula for how hedge funds work since different hedge funds employ a multitude of different strategies, there are some common characteristics that are present in most hedge funds. All hedge funds start with a hedge fund manager. This manager brings a specific strategy or investment philosophy to the table. Maybe he chooses to use leverage, [...]

What is an asset-based lending hedge fund?

Asset-based lending is a strategy employed by some hedge funds that has been gaining popularity in recent years. Asset-based lending is where a company (the hedge fund) loans another company a set amount of money, and that loan is backed by collateral (an asset). Let’s say a builder is in the process of constructing a tower and funds run dry. [...]

What is a Hurdle Rate?

A hurdle rate is the minimum return necessary for a fund manager to start collecting incentive fees. The hurdle is usually tied to a benchmark rate such as Libor (London Interbank Offered Rate) or the one-year Treasury bill rate plus a spread. Hedge funds which specify a soft hurdle rate charge a performance fee based on the entire annualized return. [...]

What is a Qualified Client?

With regards to hedge fund investing, an accredited investor is not to be confused with a “qualified client.” Qualified Clients are the most attractive investors for hedge fund managers. They must meet one of the following criteria: A natural person who or a company that immediately after entering into the contract has at least $ 750,000 under the management of [...]

What is an Accredited Investor?

Due to the risky nature of hedge funds, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that investors meet certain minimum requirements. An “accredited investor” must meet one of the following prerequisites as defined by the SEC: a bank, insurance company, registered investment company, business development company, or small business investment company an employee benefit plan, within the meaning of the Employee [...]

Regulation D

According to Wikipedia, Regulation D is a regulation of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and is also a term for an investment strategy, mostly associated with hedge funds, based upon that regulation. It provides a “safe harbor” from the general requirement that all offerings of securities be registered with the SEC, and also exempts certain offerings which total under [...]

Hedge Fund Platforms

There has been a half dozen articles in the last year (2008) about private hedge fund platforms being setup or launched by firms such as the Man Group. There are really two types of hedge fund platforms being discussed. One allows hedge funds to trade almost any type of security through one portal and the other is the attempt to [...]

Hedge Fund Research

The hedge fund industry is intensively competitive. Depending on who you ask or who you cite there are now between 10,000 and 15,000 hedge funds now in the industry. This rivalry comes to a head while hedge funds compete for large investments by institutional investors. Institutional investors spend months analyzing the investment processes and information/research advantages and resources that hedge [...]

Hedge Fund Due Diligence

New hedge funds are launched daily, which is constantly increasing the importance of determining which hedge funds are appropriate for you or your firm to invest in becomes increasingly important. Every person or company is going to have different investment horizons, risk tolerances, strategy preferences, etc. so it is usually more valuable to know the basics of how to evaluate [...]

Private Equity Funds

Private equity funds are funds made available to a limited group of high net worth investors, making them similar to hedge funds. Private equity funds are similar to hedge funds in that both require a sufficient initial investment, usually around $1 million. However, while there are some similarities, hedge funds do vary from private equity funds. Hedge funds usually aim [...]

Collapse of the Hedge Fund – Survival of the Fittest

In 1859, Charles Darwin introduced his theory on “On the origin of species” through this now famous preamble: As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the [...]

Fund of Funds

A Fund of Funds, by definition, is a fund that invests in other hedge funds, rather than in individual securities.  Any fund that pools capital together, while utilizing two or more sub managers to invest money in equity, commodities, or currencies, is considered a Fund of Funds. Investors allocate assets to Fund of Funds products mainly to diversify amongst the [...]

Hedge Fund Marketing

A hedge fund manager and/or any person acting on its behalf may not solicit an investment into a hedge fund through any type of “general solicitation” or general advertisement” under Section (c) of Regulation D. Therefore hedge fund managers rely upon hedge fund advisory services to handle capital introduction services and the distribute hedge funds directly to qualified clients. The [...]

Hedge Fund Strategies

Aggressive Growth: Invests in equities expected to experience acceleration in growth of earnings per share. Generally high P/E ratios, low or no dividends; often smaller and micro cap stocks which are expected to experience rapid growth. Includes sector specialist funds such as technology, banking, or biotechnology. Hedges by shorting equities where earnings disappointment is expected or by shorting stock indexes. [...]

MSRB Clarifies Obligations Under Investor Protection Rules

On January 22, 2008, the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB) issued a notice to clarify the obligations of broker/dealers and other municipal bond dealers in regard to investor protection rules as applied to transactions in insured municipal securities (the Notice). In summary, those broker/dealers and others who effect transactions in insured municipal bonds need to consider actual and potential rating [...]

Dubai Hedge Fund and Private Equity Activity Trend

While Dubai is a tourism hotbed and most well known for its modern architecture, indoor ski slopes and record numbers of tourists it is fast positioning itself as the financial center for northern Africa and the middle east as a whole. There are over 400 investment firms now based in or that have plans to build offices in the Dubai [...]

How Much Money is Invested in Hedge Funds?

Hedge Funds closed 2007 with over $2.7 Trillion in total assets under management. In 2007 alone hedge fund assets have risen $500B. $50B of that $337B came from emerging market hedge funds growth with most of those assets being allocated to Chinese and Brazilian hedge fund managers. These types of statistics are important to keep in mind, for if in [...]

What are some Emerging Investment Strategies for Hedge Funds?

Risk Arbitrage Risk arbitrage hedge fund strategies usually involve purchasing stocks of companies that are likely takeover targets, while assuming short positions in the would-be acquiring companies. Risk arbitrage hedge fund managers can employ an event-driven investment strategy or merger arbitrage investment strategy, seeking situations such as hostile takeovers, mergers and leveraged buyouts. Such funds typically experience moderate amounts of [...]

What are Family Offices?

Family offices are exclusive wealth management firms which primarily only accept clients with at least $10-$25M in assets.  Although family offices typically manage finances for a smaller pool of clients, they are able to provide services in a wide variety of areas such as comprehensive tax and estate planning, charitable giving, foundations, budgeting, and traditional wealth management.  Family offices traditionally [...]

Hedge Fund Ethics

In the hedge fund industry you have one name and one reputation. If you ruin that, you could have influential people in the industry refusing to do business with you for 15-20 years after their initial opinion is formed. In such a competitive, close vested industry where large profits can be made, the temptation to cut corners or look past [...]

Top 10 Hedge Fund Myths

There are a lot of aspects about the hedge fund industry that would be hard or nearly impossible to learn by reading mainstream media sources on the subject. To help answer the question about who hedge fund managers are here is a list of what is not true. Top 10 Hedge Fund Myths Most hedge fund managers are billionaires Hedge [...]

Hedge Fund Database Tips

Anyone who has the ability to successfully navigate the many channels of capital within the hedge fund industry is worth their weight in gold (and that’s rising every day). There are two major components of marketing and selling a hedge fund which each take constant attention and refining. Understand the DNA of the many distinct distribution channels open to hedge [...]

Sovereign Wealth Funds

No longer to be ignored sovereign wealth funds seem to be popping up in the WSJ as often as Ipod advertisements and pink slips for CEOs. These are pools of fully discretionary capital that are controlled by the government an often times nothing more than a small financial committee of close political allies to the president or leader of the [...]

The Process of Creating a Hedge Fund

You’ve done your research. You’ve studied the market relentlessly. You feel you have a strategy devised that will make your investors and yourself a lot of money. In today’s high-tech industry, it is easier than ever to start a hedge fund. Most of the consulting work can now be done via the internet or the telephone. It’s basically a matter [...]

What is an Incubated Fund?

An incubated fund (also called a limited distribution fund) is a hedge fund that is offered privately to a very select group of individuals, usually family members or employees of the fund. This is so the fund can stay small and unregulated while testing different investment strategies. If the fund does well, it may then be offered to outside investors. [...]

What is the Difference Between a Hedge Fund and a Mutual Fund?

While both investment vehicles try to maximize gains and minimize risk for their clients, there are some significant differences between hedge funds and mutual funds. Mainly, mutual funds are limited to stocks, money market accounts, and bonds, though some exceptions can be made. This is why the market has such an impact on mutual funds. Meanwhile, Hedge Funds may invest [...]

What is an Offshore Hedge Fund?

Hedge funds structured under foreign law, or located outside the U.S. are designated as “offshore hedge funds.”  Managers who desire to start a hedge fund offshore can enjoy several advantages over their domestic contemporaries. One advantage is that the fund and its investors are not subject to United States taxation. Another advantage is that since the number of accounts in [...]

Hedge Fund Performance

When analyzing hedge fund performance, there are many factors to consider. Hedge fund managers classify their returns several different ways and it is important to consider all of these before ascertaining a ‘real’ number. One distinction that is important to remember when interpreting hedge fund performance is whether the returns are net of fees, or are computed prior to fees. [...]